THE LİFE HZ.MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET

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THE LİFE HZ.MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET

Mesaj  Admin Bir Paz Mart 22, 2009 3:04 pm

Muhammad (whose name means "highly praised") was born in Mecca in 571 AD. His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. The young orphan was then raised primarily by his uncle, for whom he worked as a shepherd. At age 9 (some sources say 12), he joined his uncle on a caravan to Syria.

As a young man, Muhammad worked as a camel driver between Syria and Arabia. Soon he established a career managing caravans on behalf of merchants. Through his travel first with his uncle and later in his career, Muhammad came into contact with people of many nationalities and faiths, including Jews, Christians and pagans.

At age 25, Muhammad was employed by Khadija, a wealthy Meccan widow 15 years his senior. The two were married, and by all accounts enjoyed a loving and happy marriage. Early records report that "God comforted him through her, for she made his burden light." Although polygamy was common practice at the time, Muhammad took no other wife than Khadija until her death 24 years later.
Divine Revelation
Muhammed (Adını "çok övdü") Mekke içinde 571 AD doğdu demektir. His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. Babası kısa bir süre onun doğum önce öldü, ve altı yaşında annesini kaybetti. The young orphan was then raised primarily by his uncle, for whom he worked as a shepherd. Bu yetim genç sonra öncelikle Amcası tarafından, kimin için bir çoban olarak çalıştı büyüdü. At age 9 (some sources say 12), he joined his uncle on a caravan to Syria. Yaş 9 (Bazı kaynaklarda 12), o Suriye'ye bir kervan üzerine amcam katıldı söylüyorlar.

As a young man, Muhammad worked as a camel driver between Syria and Arabia. Genç bir adam olarak, Muhammed, Suriye ve Arabistan arasında bir deve sürücüsü olarak çalıştı. Soon he established a career managing caravans on behalf of merchants. Yakında o satıcı adına bir kariyer yönetimi karavanlar kurdu. Through his travel first with his uncle and later in his career, Muhammad came into contact with people of many nationalities and faiths, including Jews, Christians and pagans. Seyahat kariyerine yılında amcam ve daha sonra ilk yoluyla, Muhammed pek çok milletten ve inançlara, Yahudiler, Hıristiyanlar ve müşrikler de dahil olmak üzere insanlarla iletişim girdi.

At age 25, Muhammad was employed by Khadija, a wealthy Meccan widow 15 years his senior. 25 yaş olarak, Muhammed Khadija, zengin Meccan dul 15 yaşında onun üst düzey istihdam oldu. The two were married, and by all accounts enjoyed a loving and happy marriage. İki ve evli tüm hesapları bir sevgi dolu ve mutlu evliliğin keyif. Early records report that "God comforted him through her, for she made his burden light." Erken kayıtlar rapor "Tanrı onun aracılığıyla onu comforted için o onun yükü hafif yaptı." Although polygamy was common practice at the time, Muhammad took no other wife than Khadija until her death 24 years later. Her ne kadar zaman çok eşlilik yaygın olduğu uygulama, Muhammed Khadija daha onu ölümden 24 yıl sonra kadar başka karısı aldı.
Divine Revelation İlahi vahiy

In his late 30s Muhammad took to regularly visiting a cave in Mount Hira, on the outskirts of Mecca, to seek solitude and contemplation. Onun geç 30s yılında Muhammed düzenli Mekke ve dışında, yalnızlık ve niyet etmek üzere Bayoneti Hıra bir mağara ziyaret döktü. In 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad returned from one such visit telling his wife he had either gone mad or become a prophet, for he had been visited by an angel. 610 yılında, 40 yaşındayken, Muhammed tek bir geziden o ya deli gitmişti veya bir peygamber olmak eşi söylüyorum döndü, o bir melek tarafından ziyaret edilmiştir. The initially startled Khadija became his first convert. Bu başlangıçta Khadija ilk dönüştürmek oldu ürküyor.

Muhammad reported that while in a trance-like state, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "Proclaim!" Muhammed, Meleğin Cebrail ona göründü devlet gibi bir vecit bu süre bildirdi ve şöyle devam etti: "Oku!" But like Moses, Muhammed was a reluctant prophet. Ama Musa gibi, Muhammed bir peygamber isteksiz oldu. He replied, "I am not a proclaimer." Allah, "Ben bir proclaimer değilim." The angel persisted, and the Prophet repeatedly resisted, until the angel finally overwhelmed Muhammad and commanded him: Melek ve persisted Peygamber sürekli direndi, kadar melek nihayet Muhammed fazla ve ona komuta:

Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created! Rabbin kim oluşturulan adına Oku!
Created man from a clot of blood. Kan pıhtısı oluşturulan bir adam.
Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous, Oku: Rabbin çok Generous is
Who teaches by the pen; Kim kalem ile öğretir;
Teaches man what he knew not. O ne bilmezken adam öğretir. (Qur'an 96:1-3) (Qur'an 96:1-3)

After receiving Khadija's support, and additional angelic visits, Muhammad became confident he had indeed been chosen as the messenger of God and began to proclaim as he had been commanded. Khadija destek alma ve ek melek ziyaret sonra, Muhammed onun gerçekten ALLAH'ın habercisi olarak seçildi ve ilan etmeye başladı, o komuta olmuştur emin oldu.

Muhammad's message to his countrymen was to convert from pagan polytheism, immorality and materialism, repent from evil and worship Allah, the only true God. Onun countrymen için Muhammed mesaj putperest politeizm, ahlaksızlık ve materyalizm, kötü ve Allah'a, tek gerçek İLAHIN tevbe dönüştüğünde oldu. He was always careful to clarify his role in God's work - he was only a prophet. Her zaman ALLAH'ın çalışma rolü açıklamayı dikkatli idi - sadece bir peygamber olduğunu. He was not an angel, he did not know the mind of God, he did not work miracles. O bir melek değildi, o ALLAH'ın aklın bilmiyordum, o mucize did not work. He simply preached what he had received. O sadece onun aldığını vaaz vermiş.

In the first three years of his ministry, Muhammad gained only 40 followers. Kendi bakanlığının ilk üç yılda, Muhammed sadece 40 taraftar kazandı. And as his teachings threatened the Meccan way of life, both moral and economic, he and his followers experienced heavy persecution. Ve onun öğretilerini, her ikisi de ahlaki ve ekonomik hayat ve Meccan şekilde tehdit, o ve onun taraftar ağır zulüm yaşadı. It first took the form of mockery, but soon turned into open violence. İlk, ama alay şeklinde aldı yakında açık şiddet dönüştü. Members of the small movement were stoned, covered in dirt as they prayed, beat with sticks, thrown into prison and refused service by merchants. Küçük hareketi üyeleri gibi dua kir kapsanan, sopalarla, cezaevi içine atılır ve satıcı ile servis reddetti yendi taşlanmışlardan edildi.
Hijira Hijira

Persecution continued to increase until Muhammad received some welcome news: he had gained followers in the city of Yathrib, 280 miles north of Mecca. Zulüm kadar Muhammed bazı hoşgeldiniz haber alınan artış devam etti: O Yathrib, 280 mil kuzeyinde Mecca of şehirde taraftar kavuşmuştur. The city was in need of a strong leader, and a delegation from Yathrib proposed that Muhammad take the job. Şehir güçlü bir lider ihtiyacı ve Yathrib bir heyeti Muhammed iş almak önerilmişti. In return, they pledged to worship Allah only, obey Muhammad and defend him and his followers to the death. Buna karşılık, onlar Allah'a sadece, Muhammed uyun ve ona ve ölüm yaptığı takipçisi savunma sözü verdi. Allah revealed to Muhammed his approval of this arrangement, and Muhammad made plans to escape to Yathrib. Allah, Muhammed, bu düzenlemenin kendi onayı saptandı ve Muhammed planları Yathrib kaçmayı yaptı.

The leaders in Mecca heard of the planned escape, and attempted to prevent it. Mekke de liderleri planlanan escape, duydum ve bunu önlemek için harekete geçti. But Muhammad and his close friend Abu Bakr managed to make a narrow escape north out of the city, evading a Meccan search party and arriving safely in Yathrib. Ama Muhammed ve onun yakın arkadaşı Abu Bakr kuzey çıkışı şehrin dar bir çıkış yapmak için, bir Meccan arama parti evading yönetilen ve güvenli Yathrib gelmeden. This event is celebrated by Muslims as the Hijira. Bu olay Müslümanlar tarafından Hijira olarak kutlanan bir. The year in which it occurred, 622, is the date at which the Muslim calendar begins. Bu da, 622 oluştu yıl, bu Müslüman takvim başlayan tarihidir. Yathrib was renamed Medinat al-Nabi, "the City of the Prophet," and is now known simply as Medina, "the City." Yathrib "ve Medinat al-Nabi," Şehir Peygamber ve değiştirildi şimdi sadece Medine olarak bilinir, "Şehir".

In Medina, Muhammad proved himself an able politician and statesman as well as a prophet. Medina yılında Muhammed kendisi gibi bir peygamber Yetenekli bir politikacı ve devlet adamı oldu.

Exercising superb statecraft, he welded the five heterogenous and conflicting tribes of the city, three of which were Jewish, into an orderly confederation.... Süper devlet iştir, o düzenli bir konfederasyon haline .... kentin üç olan Yahudi olan beş heterojen ve çelişkili kabileler, kaynak His reputation spread and people began to flock from every part of Arabia to see the man who had wrought this 'miracle.' Onun ünü yayılır ve insanlar flok için Arabistan her yerinden kim vardı adam görmek için başlayan bu 'mucize dövme. (Smith, 230). (Smith, 230).

Battle for Mecca Muharebe Mekke için

After establishing himself in Medina and accomplishing the job he had been invited to do, the people of Medina began several years of battle with Muhammad's former home city. Medina kendi kurulması ve yapmaya davet olan iş accomplishing sonra, Medine halkı Muhammed eski ev şehir savaşı birkaç yıl başladı. In 624, the Muslims won their first battle against the Meccans. 624 yılında, Müslümanlar Meccans karşı ilk savaşını kazandı. As the latter had a much larger army, the former took the victory as a sign that God was on their side. Olarak ise daha büyük bir ordu vardı, eski Tanrı onların tarafında da bir işareti olarak zafer aldı. However, a subsequent battle was not victorious, and Muhammad himself was wounded. Ancak, bir sonraki savaşta galip değildi ve kendisi yaralandı Muhammed. But in 627, the Meccans attacked Medina, and Medina came out on top. Ama 627 in the Meccans Medina saldırdı ve Medine üzerine çıktı. The Prophet was not to lose again. Peygamber tekrar kaybetmeye değildi.

In 630, Muhammad and his forces marched to Mecca and defeated it. 630 yılında, Muhammed ve onun kuvvetleri Mekke için yürüdü ve mağlup etti. The Prophet rededicated the Ka'ba temple to Allah, witnessed the conversion to Islam of nearly the entire Meccan population, then returned to Medina. Peygamberin Allah'a, sonra Medine'ye döndü İslam neredeyse tüm Meccan nüfusun dönüştürme tanık olan Ka'ba tapınak rededicated. Muhammad died in 632, having conquered nearly all of Arabia for Islam. Muhammed 632 yılında, neredeyse bütün Arabistan İslam için fethetti kalmadan öldü.
In his late 30s Muhammad took to regularly visiting a cave in Mount Hira, on the outskirts of Mecca, to seek solitude and contemplation. In 610, at the age of 40, Muhammad returned from one such visit telling his wife he had either gone mad or become a prophet, for he had been visited by an angel. The initially startled Khadija became his first convert.

Muhammad reported that while in a trance-like state, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and said "Proclaim!" But like Moses, Muhammed was a reluctant prophet. He replied, "I am not a proclaimer." The angel persisted, and the Prophet repeatedly resisted, until the angel finally overwhelmed Muhammad and commanded him:

Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created!
Created man from a clot of blood.
Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous,
Who teaches by the pen;
Teaches man what he knew not. (Qur'an 96:1-3)

After receiving Khadija's support, and additional angelic visits, Muhammad became confident he had indeed been chosen as the messenger of God and began to proclaim as he had been commanded.

Muhammad's message to his countrymen was to convert from pagan polytheism, immorality and materialism, repent from evil and worship Allah, the only true God. He was always careful to clarify his role in God's work - he was only a prophet. He was not an angel, he did not know the mind of God, he did not work miracles. He simply preached what he had received.

In the first three years of his ministry, Muhammad gained only 40 followers. And as his teachings threatened the Meccan way of life, both moral and economic, he and his followers experienced heavy persecution. It first took the form of mockery, but soon turned into open violence. Members of the small movement were stoned, covered in dirt as they prayed, beat with sticks, thrown into prison and refused service by merchants.
Hijira

Persecution continued to increase until Muhammad received some welcome news: he had gained followers in the city of Yathrib, 280 miles north of Mecca. The city was in need of a strong leader, and a delegation from Yathrib proposed that Muhammad take the job. In return, they pledged to worship Allah only, obey Muhammad and defend him and his followers to the death. Allah revealed to Muhammed his approval of this arrangement, and Muhammad made plans to escape to Yathrib.

The leaders in Mecca heard of the planned escape, and attempted to prevent it. But Muhammad and his close friend Abu Bakr managed to make a narrow escape north out of the city, evading a Meccan search party and arriving safely in Yathrib. This event is celebrated by Muslims as the Hijira. The year in which it occurred, 622, is the date at which the Muslim calendar begins. Yathrib was renamed Medinat al-Nabi, "the City of the Prophet," and is now known simply as Medina, "the City."

In Medina, Muhammad proved himself an able politician and statesman as well as a prophet.

Exercising superb statecraft, he welded the five heterogenous and conflicting tribes of the city, three of which were Jewish, into an orderly confederation.... His reputation spread and people began to flock from every part of Arabia to see the man who had wrought this 'miracle.' (Smith, 230).

Battle for Mecca

After establishing himself in Medina and accomplishing the job he had been invited to do, the people of Medina began several years of battle with Muhammad's former home city. In 624, the Muslims won their first battle against the Meccans. As the latter had a much larger army, the former took the victory as a sign that God was on their side. However, a subsequent battle was not victorious, and Muhammad himself was wounded. But in 627, the Meccans attacked Medina, and Medina came out on top. The Prophet was not to lose again.

In 630, Muhammad and his forces marched to Mecca and defeated it. The Prophet rededicated the Ka'ba temple to Allah, witnessed the conversion to Islam of nearly the entire Meccan population, then returned to Medina. Muhammad died in 632, having conquered nearly all of Arabia for Islam.

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